Friday, December 14, 2012


Solar System - Sistem Suria              galaxy - galaksi

contituents - ahli-ahli                         Milky Way - Bima Sakti

planet - planet                                        universe - alam semesta

Mercury - Utarid                                    space - angkasa lepas

Venus - Zuhrah                                      satellite - satelit

Earth - Bumi                                           astronaut - angkasawan

Mars - Marikh                                         star - bintang

Jupiter -  Musytari                               Elliptical galaxy - galaksi berbentuk bujur

Saturn - Zuhal                                       Spiral galaxy - galaksi berpilin

Uranus - Uranus                                    Irregular galaxy - galaksi tidak teratur

Neptune - Neptun                                 atmosphere - atmosfera

Moon - Bulan                                          million - juta

comet - komet                                        billion - bilion

meteor - meteor                                

meteorite - meteorit

asteroid - asteroid

orbit - orbit

ellipse - elips

Our Beautiful Earth

Look At The Beauty Secrets Of 
Our Earth

Saturday, December 8, 2012

Solar System : Related Topic-Use Your Imagination

How Big Is The Universe?

Solar System: Related Topic - The Big Bang

How was the Universe made?

Most of the satronomers think that the Universe was formed during an even called “BIG BANG” – a giant explosion which occurred between 10 to 20 billion years ago. During the Big Bang all of  the space, time, matter and energy in the Universe was created. This giant explosion hurled matter in all directions and caused space itself to expand. As the universe cooled, the material in it combined to form galaxies, stars and planets.



Solar System : Related Topic - The Universe

Related Topic – The Universe

      The Universe is made up of billions of galaxies. In the Universe, there are 2,000,000,000,000,0000,000 stars. These stars made up galaxies. Each galaxy has a billion of stars. The Universe is incredibly huge. It would take a modern jet fighter more than a million years to reach the nearest star to the sun. Travelling at the speed of light (300,000km per second), it would take 100,000 years to cross our Milky Way galaxy alone.

        No one knows the exact size of the Universe, because we cannot see the edge. All we do know is that the visible Universe is at least 93 billion light years across (A light year is the distance light travels in one year – about 9 trillion km).

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Monday, December 3, 2012

Comet - Another member of Solar System

Comet - Another member of Solar System.

What is a comet?

Comets are basically dusty snowballs which orbit the sun. They are made of ices, such as water, carbon dioxide, ammonia and methane, mixed with dust. These materials came from the time when the solar system was formed. Comets have an icy center (nucleus) surrounded by a large cloud of gas and dust (called the coma). The coma is created as the ice in the nucleus is warmed by the sun and vaporizes. Comets can develop 2 tails as they travel closer to the sun, a straight gas tail and a curved dust tail. The gas tail is created by the solar wind, whose magnetic fields pull the gas away from the comet's coma. The dust in the coma is not affected by magnetic fields but is vaporized by the sun's heat, and forms a curved tail which follows the comet's orbit.

Monday, November 26, 2012

Another member of Solar System - Asteroid

The asteroid belt lies between the planets Mars and Jupiter. It contains lumps of rock and metal much smaller than planets. These lumps are called asteroids or minor planets. Asteroid like other planets moves around the sun in its band area. They are not visible from Earth with the naked eye, but many may be seen through binoculars or small telescopes.

Wednesday, November 7, 2012

The Orther Member Of Solar System-The Natural Satellite

Natural Satellites

     A natural satellite is a celestial body ( planet) that moves around another bigger planet . A natural satellite does not give out light . For example , the Moon is a natural satellite of Earth . With the exception of Mercury and Venus , all the other planet in the Solar System have natural satellites . Mars has two natural satellites namely Phobos and Deimos . Big planets have more natural satellites . For examples , Jupiter and Saturn have 62 and 31 natural satellites respectively . Io and Europa are natural satellites of Jupiter and they are of the same size as our Moon . Another two natural satellites are Ganymede and Callisto . They are bigger than our Moon and are as big as Mercury . Among the natural satellites of Saturn, Titan is the biggest and is 1.5 times the size of our Moon . Uranus and Neptune have 24 and 13 natural satellite respectively . The biggest natural satellite of Neptune is called Triton.

The other members of the Solar System


    When the weather is fine at night , we can see many stars twinkling in the sky . Once in a while we can see a bright ray of light shooting across the sky and then disappears in an instant . Some people think that the stars have fallen to the fallen ? Of course not ! The ray of light is a meteor or a shooting star .
    A meteor is meteoroid that burns in a bright streak due to great friction with the air molecules in the atmosphere . What is a meteoroid ? A meteoroid is a small piece of rock that floats about in space . In the Solar System, there are millions of meteoroids that move around the Sun . Meteoroids move close to the Earth . The force of Earth’s gravity pulls some meteoroids into the Earth’s atmosphere . Most meteoroids burn up into ashes in the atmosphere before they can reach the surface of the Earth . Sometimes some meteoroids that are not burn up completely do reach the surface of the Earth and these are known as meteorites .
    Sometimes many meteors can be seen falling from the sky . This is known as a meteor shower . 

Monday, October 29, 2012

Solar System

Solar System

Solar System
       Astronomers believe that the Solar System was formed from a cloud of gas and dust . The Sun that emits heat and light is the centre of the Solar System . The Sun is surrounded by eight  planets and other bodies such as natural satellites, comets and meteoroids .
       The nine planets starting from the one nearest to the Sun are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune(the furthest being Pluto not a planet anymore) .
       Each planet rotates about on its own axis . The rotation of the planets around the Sun is influenced by the strong gravity of the Sun making their orbits elliptical in shape .
       The Earth is one of the planets in the Solar System and it revolves about its own axis and also moves around the Sun following its own orbit .


    My name is Neptune . I am one of the planets of the Solar System . I am the eighth planet from the Sun . The distance from the Sun to me is 4504 million km . A space probe such as the Voyager 2 will take 12 years to reach me . I take 164.8 years to make one complete orbit around the Sun . The time I take to make one rotation on my own axis is 22 hours . Since the discovery of my existence in 1846, I have yet to complete one orbit around the Sun .
    I also experience the four seasons but the change from one season to another takes a long time because my orbit around the Sun is very slow . I receive very little light and heat from the Sun because I am very far away from the Sun . Therefore, it is very dark and very cold with a temperature below -150°C on my surface .
    I am 57 times the size of Earth and I have 13 natural satellites . Like Jupiter, I also have rings around me . Although I have 4 rings , they cannot be seen clearly .


    Before the invention of the telescope, man can only try to see planets like Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn with their naked eye . In 1781 Uranus was discovered by a British astronomer, William Herschel using a telescope he made himself . This discovery motivated people at that time to look for other planets .
    The diameter of Uranus is 51118 km and is the third largest planet in the Solar System . It takes 84 years to orbit the Sun and 24 hours to rotates on its own axis . The thick atmosphere in Uranus causes it to look bluish-green .
    One thing that is special about Uranus is that it rotates on its side and this cause it look like it is reclining ( resting in a horizontal position ) while rotating about its own axis .


    Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest planet in the Solar System . Its diameter is 120536 km . However its specific gravity is very small . If placed in the sea  it will not sink .
    Saturn rotates very fast about its own axis making one rotation in only 10 hours bit it takes 29½ years to make one orbit around the Sun . It is extremely cold with a temperature of -178°C .
    Saturn is known as the most spectacular planet because of the rings of ice and dust around it . It has 31 natural satellites . Among the natural satellites is one called the Titan with a diameter of 5150 km which is twice the size of Mercury .
(Specific gravity : Mass of any substance in relation to an equal volume f water.)


    Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System . Its diameter is 142984 km . It revolves around the Sun together with its 62 natural satellites .
    Jupiter is big and rotates fast needing only 9hours and 50 minutes to make one rotation about its own axis . However, the time it takes to make a complete orbit around the Sun is 12 years .
    Jupiter is a giant planet of gas . Its surface is covered with liquid and not rocks or land . The atmosphere is a layer of hydrogen gas and this is similar to that of the Sun .
    The Great Red Spot that can be seen on the surface of Jupiter are actually layers of gas that rise suddenly .


    Humans have already set foot on the Moon . Which planet will man’s next target be ? The answer is Mars . Its surface has volcanic craters and the plains (plateaus) are winding as though they are rivers .
    The characteristics of Mars include having a layer of atmosphere , temperature , period of rotation and changes of climate that are similar to that of Earth’s . This is why man have shown a keen interest in Mars . Actually Mars cannot support life and it will be strange for man to want to migrate there .
    Mars is a red planet and is the fourth planet from the Sun . Its diameter is 6791 km .  It takes 24 hours and 37 minutes to make one rotation about its own axis and 687 days to make one orbit around the Sun .
    The yellowish-red colour on the surface of Mars is due to the dust storms the blow for months .    


Earth is the planet we all live on . Although we assume that our Earth is very big , it is actually very small compared to the other planets in the Solar System . The average diameter of the Earth is 12735km .
The Earth is the third planet from the Sun . It takes 24 hours to make one rotation abut its own axis and 365¼ days to make one orbit around the Sun .
Earth is very special in the sense that it is a planet that has air and water . The layer of the atmosphere filters some sunlight to enable animals and plants to live safely on it . The distance of Earth from the Sun is neither too far nor too near . The Earth is also beautiful because it has four seasons .
The Moon is the natural satellite of the Earth , If the Moon is at the position exactly between the Earth and the Sun, the phenomenon called the eclipse of the Sun will occur . The Sun is blocked by the Moon and the Earth becomes totally dark . Have you ever seen an eclipse of the Sun ? 

    Have you ever seen a bright shinning object in the sky at dawn ? It is the planet Venus . It is the brightest object in the sky besides the Sun and the Moon .
    Venus has a diameter of 12103km . Venus is also the planet nearest to the Earth . The atmosphere on Venus is made up of a thick layer of carbon dioxide that completely covers the surface .
    Venus makes one complete orbit around the Sun in 224.7 days but its rotation about its own axis is very slow taking 243 days . The direction of rotation of Venus is opposite to that of the Earth’s . Venus rotates from east to west . If you were on Venus, you would see the Sun rising in the west and setting in the east
    However, man can never live on Venus because it is the hottest planet in the Solar System . The highest temperature is 462°C and no living thing can exist there .  


    Mercury is the planet nearest to the Sun . We can observe this planet by using an astronomical telescope . Mercury does not have air or living things on it .
    The diameter of Mercury is 4879km . Mercury takes 88 days to make one revolution around the Sun and 59 days to make one complete rotation about its own axis .
    Because Mercury has no atmosphere , its highest temperature is 427°C and the lowest is -173°C .
    The surface of Mercury is full of craters much like the surface of the Moon . Many big craters are named after famous artists like Beethoven, Mozart and others .